CBC Fires Evan Solomon for Conflict of Interest: Just Cause?

The CBC continues to provide wonderful material for Canadian employment lawyers.  Its very public employment disputes are fascinating case studies.  The most recent case involves allegations of conflict of interest against prominent host Evan Solomon.  Mr. Solomon was apparently dismissed by the CBC.  Do the allegations warrant a finding of just cause?  We don’t know yet, since the case has not yet been adjudicated.  But it is worth considering some aspects of conflict of interest cases.

In Canada, employees do owe a duty of fidelity to their employees.  This does not mean that employers can control an employee’s extra-office activities.  However, if personal activities can be linked back to the employer and can be seen to create a conflict of interest, employers may have legal grounds for concern.

In Mr. Solomon’s case, the Toronto Star has printed a story alleging that Mr. Solomon was engaged in brokering the sale of high end paintings and masks, accepting significant commissions for these activities, and failing to disclose the fact that he was earning commissions to the purchasers of the art.   The article alleges that Mr. Solomon came to know the buyers and sellers in the course of his role as a journalist working for the CBC.  The apparent suggestion is that he used his CBC access to certain individuals to further his private art brokerage business.  These allegations have not been proven in a court.  However, the Star has also referenced a public statement by Solomon in which he stated that he never “intentionally” used his position that the CBC to further his art business.

To make things a bit more interesting, the Star also quotes CBC spokesman Chuck Thompson as having stated that Mr. Solomon had disclosed his involvement in the art business and that CBC had not had any concerns.  Thompson supposedly stated that Mr. Solomon had not “traded on his journalistic contacts.”

It seems that the Star was not satisfied with this response and set out to push the matter further with the CBC by disclosing further results of its own inquiries.

There may well be significant factual disputes between Mr. Solomon, the Star and the CBC over these allegations.  It is impossible to know, at this point, what facts will emerge.

If all of the allegations as stated in the Star report were proven true and the CBC were to be able to demonstrate that Mr. Solomon was using his journalistic contacts to further his personal art brokerage business, this could well be the type of conflict of interest violation that would substantiate a dismissal for cause.

However, If Mr. Solomon were to show that he disclosed his activities in a truthful manner to the CBC and that the CBC had approved, even implicitly, Mr. Solomon could have a reasonable case.  Any examination of the facts will involve a careful review of the details that Mr. Solomon disclosed to the CBC compared to the actual facts and activities that can be proven.

In this picture, it appears that cracks in the paint started to appear when one of Mr. Solomon’s art deals became acrimonious.  Apparently there was a dispute over commissions owing with respect to one of Mr. Solomon’s sellers.   The story involving allegations of conflict of interest broke subsequently.

Although only a few Canadian employees might have the opportunity to broker high end artwork with the connections that they meet at the workplace, there are many other types of conflict of interest.  Hundreds of reported cases have looked at a wide range of conflicts and considered guidelines.  Many of these cases, for example, involve bank employees, who enter into deals with clients outside of bank auspices.  There are many other examples as well in other workplaces.

Here are few key points that both employers and employees should consider in conflict of interest cases:

1.  Employer Policy:  Employers should certainly have detailed conflict of interest policies in place that spell out expectations with respect to gifts, private activities with clients and other related matters.  Employees should be provided with these policies when they first commence employment.

2.  Disclosure:  Employees who would like to run a private business that might be viewed as a conflict are well advised to ensure that they have employer approval for their activities.  It may make sense to get legal advice first but, ultimately, full disclosure to an employer of the type of business activities that the employee intends to operate, coupled with explicit or, at least, tacit approval from the employer can have a prophylactic effect.  Having a paper record of these disclosure, even in email form, can be crucial.

3.  Honesty and Legality:  Even if the employer is aware of the activities, that does not give an employee carte blanche.  If the employee’s business veers into the realm of illegal activities or activities that otherwise create exposure for the employer, the employer may still have grounds to terminate employment for cause, even if some of the activities were disclosed initially.  In the CBC case, if the CBC were able to prove that any of Mr. Solomon’s activities were actually illegal (for example, earning a secret commission or tax evasion), this could put Mr. Solomon in a very difficult spot.  At this point, there is certainly no basis for believing that Mr. Solomon was involved in anything in this category.

As with the situation involving Mr. Ghomeshi, it will be fascinating to follow this case and see the ultimate outcome.  If a confidential deal is reached between Mr. Solomon and the CBC, Canadians may never really find out how the situation was resolved.  For now,  it certainly looks as though Mr. Solomon will require the services of an entirely different type of broker to arrange for a settlement that may well be worth far more than many of the pieces of art that he was allegedly involved in trading.



Fired for Off-Duty Conduct: Should that hold up?

Can inappropriate off-duty conduct be used by an employer to dismiss an employee for just cause?  The answer is far from clear.

By now, you have probably read about or seen a video of the incident at BMO field.  A CityNews reporter was heckled with the obscene phrase “FHRITP” by a guy looking to grab some attention and get himself on the news.  One of the guys with him defended the vulgarity and expanded on it.  The reporter, Shauna Hunt, fired back.  She professionally pushed these guys, on air, to explain why they would act in such demeaning fashion towards a female reporter.  This was not the first time she had been faced with this harassment and she decided to push back.  The video made its way through cyberspace.  Shortly afterwards, HydroOne fired one of the guys involved in the incident.  Here is the video of the incident.

I am not looking to defend the behaviour of these louts.  There should be little societal tolerance for those who wish to attack and delegitimize women reporters by yelling obscene sexual phrases at them.  Perhaps a complaint could be filed with the Ontario Human Rights Commission and damages could be awarded.  Maybe some type of civil lawsuit would be appropriate.  Or perhaps there are other avenues for dealing with this.

But the question in an employment law blog – is whether this justifies the loss of employment for the obscene heckler and his off-duty conduct.  Even though this happened after a soccer match rather than a basketball game, The answer is still no slam dunk.

If these individuals had been employees of MLSE, for example, and had yelled out these phrases, on air, at an MLSE event, the connection would be clear.  They would have been acting as representative employees of MLSE and there would have been little doubt that dismissal would be the appropriate remedy.  Or if they had been fellow reporters, at the scene while conducting other interviews.

But the guy who was fired was an employee of HydroOne which had nothing to do with this incident.  So the individual was fired for off-duty, obscene conduct, which had no connection to his employment.  He was not charged.  The public would not have associated him with HydroOne, unless he was in a position in which he would regularly deal with public.  If for example, he was in a customer relations position at HydroOne, or a human resources role, the case might be a bit different.

HydroOne has stated that this was a violation of their “Code of Conduct.”  It is certainly admirable of the company to take a strong stand against sexual harassment in the workplace and in society in general.  It is understandable and legally supportable that HydroOne would take steps to ensure that nothing like this occurs in its workplace or in connection with its workplaces.

But off-duty conduct that violates a “code of conduct?”  What are the limits of that code?  Lots of activities might be violations.  Does an employer have the right to follow employees around, off hours, and check up on whether their off-duty activities may or may not violate a code of conduct?  Will HydroOne send representatives to its employees’ private, off-duty parties to monitor what happens once their employees have a few drinks?  Will HydroOne start firing employees for behaviour at their kids’ hockey games, where many parents yell all kinds of obscene things?  Where is the line?

In response, HydroOne might say that they did not need to follow anyone anywhere nor do they intend to do so.   This incident simply became so public that the association with HydroOne caused public embarrassment – to the employee and to the employer.  HydroOne had to act to send a public message that it takes sexual harassment seriously.

While I can certainly understand the embarrassment to the employee, I’m just not sure that anyone would have drawn a tie in between the employee and HydroOne if HydroOne had not identified the protagonist as a HydroOne worker.

If the employee was in a non-unionized position, the issue would simply be whether or not there was “just cause” for terminating his employment.  He would probably bring a wrongful dismissal lawsuit – and there is a reasonable likelihood that a settlement would be reached at some point, though it would be confidential.  But he would not get his job back and he would have few other remedies, aside from some compensation for the loss of his position.  If he could show that HydroOne’s conduct had violated the Ontario Human Rights Code in some way or if he could convince a judge that this was “bad faith” conduct, he might get additional damages.  But that seems like a stretch.  If successful, he would probably wind up with a decent severance package, perhaps in the range of one month per year worked.

On the other hand, if the employee was unionized, he could file a grievance and ask to be reinstated to his position.  He could argue that some action short of dismissal would have been appropriate.  A public apology, a short suspension or some other disciplinary measures.  Or perhaps, even, none at all.  An adjudicator will have to decide whether the employment relationship became so damaged that he could no longer continue as an employee.

In either case, the employer will argue that the employee’s very public behaviour was a violation of its code of conduct and caused the employer public embarrassment.  The employer had to make it clear that sexual harassment, by its employees, while not be tolerated even if the incidents in question involve off-duty conduct.

I have to conclude that this could be a frightening precedent.  Not because I am trying to defend this guy’s conduct, which I am certainly not.  But because I would have concerns about the extent to which a person’s unrelated off-duty conduct, even if reprehensible, can lead to termination of employment in a position that has nothing to do with the conduct.  If it is conduct for which someone is criminally charged – and perhaps even convicted, that becomes a different story.  Or if the conduct is somehow related to the type of position.  For example, if this guy had been a teacher.  One can easily see that parents would be wary of having their children taught by a teacher who conducts himself in this fashion.

But if the type of employment has no relationship whatsoever to the type of incident, the link becomes far more questionable.

We have already seen stories of employers scouring the Facebook pages of potential employees and even asking for Facebook passwords to be able to gather information about job candidates.   It has become clear that no conduct, these days, is truly private when everyone is equipped with a cell phone with a video camera and the ability to instantly upload movies.  But are there any limits as to how employers and potential employers can use all of this information and media?  This is probably an area of law that will continue to develop, quite rapidly.  But the incident does emphasize the point that any inappropriate conduct can become public extremely quickly.  Certainly police offers across Canada and the U.S. have been learning that lesson.

Maybe it is ultimately beneficial for society that people can suffer significant consequences for highly inappropriate behaviour.  Such behaviour might include public instances of harassment, racism, anti-Semitism and other demeaning behaviour.  But I’m just not sure that summary dismissal with no compensation, the “capital punishment of employment law” and being left without a job or an income is the correct remedy here.

It will be interesting to hear what Canadian courts have to say about this.  We will have to watch and see how this case develops.

Just Cause for Dismissal: Is One Incident Enough?

Is one incident of dishonesty just cause for dismissal?  What if it involves a long-serving employee?  This was the issue that was decided recently by the B.C. Court of Appeal in  Steel v. Coast Capital Savings Credit Union.  

The plaintiff, Susan Steel, was a help desk analyst.  She had been employed by the Credit Union for 21 years.  In 2008, the plaintiff accessed the personal folder of a manager.  The manager kept a folder for assigning parking spaces and the plaintiff wanted to check her status.  She was caught because the manager was accessing the folder at the very same time.  She was confronted and admitted her misconduct.  She also acknowledged that she did not have authorization.

At trial, the judge reviewed the case law, focusing on the Supreme Court of Canada’s landmark decision in McKinley v. B.C. Tel (2001) SCC 38. The court dismissed the case and found that Ms Steel had been dismissed for just cause.  The plaintiff appealed to the B.C. Court of Appeal.

By a 2-1 majority decision, the B.C. Court of Appeal upheld the trial court decision and dismissed the appeal.  As the Court of Appeal put it, “McKinley requires courts to apply a contextual analysis to determine whether employee misconduct amounts to just cause for dismissal….Following McKinley, a single act of dishonesty as a matter of law no longer gives an employer an absolute right to dismissal its employee.”

However, the Court of Appeal also noted that “a single act of misconduct can justify dismissal if the misconduct is of a sufficient character to cause the irreparable breakdown of the employment relationship.”

The majority of the court held that a breach of privacy was such a fundamental obligation in this type of employment position that the plaintiff’s action could be seen as causing a “fundamental breakdown of the employment relationship.”

In dissenting reasons, Justice Donald included this sentence:  “What is absent from the trial judge’s reasons is an explanation why a single instance of a breach of the privacy rules should end a 21 year career….The record does not show deceit, fraud, theft or stealth.  The misconduct was serious, as the judge found, but her analysis of the proportionality of the penalty left out a vital factor.”  Justice Donald would have allowed the appeal and remitted the case to the trial judge for an assessment of damages.

The McKinley decision has been cited many times and has been interpreted in different ways.  In some cases, it has been used to help dismissed plaintiffs obtain damages where many people might find the results to be puzzling and overly sympathetic.  In other cases, courts have limited the application of McKinley to minor or more limited instances of dishonesty or misconduct.

Ultimately, each judge applies his or own sense of “proportion” and reasonableness.  Here two appellate court judges held that one instance of this type of dishonesty was cause for dismissal, whereas one judge disagreed.

For plaintiffs and for employers these are risky cases.  They are fact driven.  But they also depend on sensibilities of the particular judge hearing the case as well as the appellate court panel that might hear the case if it is appealed.

For Susan Steel, this was a very costly and time consuming ordeal.  The Court of Appeal decision was released in 2015, some seven years after Ms Steel was dismissed.  Ultimately, she has been awarded nothing after 21 years of employment and may well have incurred significant legal fees.  The case is a reminder of the high stakes of pursuing just cause litigation where an undisputed instance of improper conduct is involved.


Dismissal of Ghomeshi: Some Employment Law Points

The dismissal of Jian Ghomeshi from the CBC continues to dominate headlines. At this point, however, it has really become much more of a case about sexual assault and the criminal proceedings that Ghomeshi faces rather than about the employment law aspects of the case. I am not going to delve into the criminal law aspects of this matter or get into a discussion about sexual assault laws in Canada. Instead, I wanted to highlight some of the employment law points that emerged from the case.

A CBC spokesperson announced earlier this week that Ghomeshi had dropped his $55M lawsuit against the CBC. According to the CBC, Ghomeshi agreed to a dismissal of the case and to pay $18,000 towards the CBC’s legal costs. Wow, what an embarrassing result; a total victory for the CBC.  In hockey terms, that is the equivalent of an 8-0 loss, something that Toronto Maple Leaf fans have been known to experience (even if the CBC will have fewer future occasions to broadcast these matches). Ghomeshi can still pursue a grievance arbitration, if his union decides to take the case to a hearing. But the only courtroom he is likely to encounter now will be a criminal court, if his case winds up going to trial.

I discussed some of the employment law aspects of his case here when some of initial details began emerging. Now that the case is effectively over, it is worth highlighting a few additional points:

  1. The best defence is not always an outrageous offence:

Although there are some very aggressive employment lawyers in Toronto, a pre-emptive strategy is simply not always the best course of action. Some Canadians might be tempted to think that a strategy that worked in the past for former Prime Minister Mulroney must be a sensible one. But each case has its own facts. Sometimes employees facing a dismissal with cause are able to negotiate a quiet resolution of their situation that involves minimal publicity and perhaps even a mutually agreeable statement about the person’s departure. It is far from clear that Mr. Ghomeshi would have been able to arrange that type of deal with the CBC. But a strategy of posting a lengthy message on Facebook, launching an outrageous, ill-conceived claim and remaining defiant is extremely risky at the best of times. It does not seem to have served Mr. Ghomeshi very well in this case.

  1. Appropriate legal representation

Unionized employees face a tremendous uphill battle in trying to sue their former employers. Generally, they are prohibited from bringing such cases. If they wish to proceed, they must show that the lawsuit raises issues that our outside of the scope of the employment relationship and can stand on their own as independent torts or causes of action. In Mr. Ghomeshi’s case, he claimed, among other things, that he was dismissed because the CBC made a moral judgment about his lifestyle choice. That type of pleading almost certainly doomed this lawsuit from the start.

Employment lawyers are left scratching their heads. We must prepare a pleading that stands a decent chance of surviving the requirements that have been set out by the Supreme Court of Canada. If this cannot be done, clients will usually be advised that the claim has no chance of success. Mr. Ghomeshi may well have been provided with that advice. However, Mr. Ghomeshi’s decision to proceed with such an ill-fated claim, even after having been provided with the assessment that success was virtually impossible seems highly questionable, at best, on the part of Mr. Ghomeshi and his legal team.

  1. Resolving an unwinnable case

The CBC did not even bother putting in a Statement of Defence in response to Mr. Ghomeshi’s claim. There was no need to do so. Instead, it simply brought a preliminary motion to strike out the claim as one that disclosed no real cause of action. Normally, that is a difficult standard to meet. Moreover, if a plaintiff becomes concerned that the case is unwinnable or that there are reasons to drop it (like the prospect of criminal charges), this can often be done on terms that are close to neutral for the plaintiff. Many defendants will agree to a consent dismissal of a lawsuit without the payment of any legal costs. If legal costs are to be paid, most defendants will agree to some type of confidentiality provision. In this case, Mr. Ghomeshi appears to have surrendered completely. His case was dismissed with costs. It was announced publicly. And it was also announced that he was forced to pay the CBC’s legal fees of $18,000. While there are certainly cases in which a plaintiff is ordered to pay the defendant’s costs after losing an actual trial, it is quite rare for a plaintiff to pay legal costs just for the privilege of dropping a lawsuit. Obviously, there are many facts that the public has not been told and it became quite clear to Ghomeshi and his lawyers that he was likely to wind up paying a much higher amount in legal fees if the case was dismissed by court after hearing the motion.

Overall, the case has been a reminder that lawyers cannot work miracles. Sometimes the best strategy for dismissed employees facing strong just cause cases is to negotiate the best possible, confidential, walk-away resolution. If that cannot be done, steps should still be taken to minimize the potential damage rather than exacerbate it.

Just Cause for Dismissal? Hard to Prove.

What kind of conduct is just cause for the dismissal of a teacher?  If the teacher has been a long serving employee, the threshold will be quite high, according to a recent Ontario Superior Court decision.

In the case of Fernandes v. Peel Educational & Tutorial Services Limted, the plaintiff was awarded one year’s salary.  Perhaps more significantly, he was awarded the value of disability benefits that he would have been eligible to receive because he became disabled within a short time period after being dismissed.

Mr. Fernandes had been a teacher with Peel Educational Tutorial Services for more than 10 years.  In 2009, the school alleged that Mr. Fernandes had falsified students’ marks and committed “academic fraud” by doing so.  Mr. Fernandes conceded that some of his calculations were incorrect and that there were some issues with his submitted marks.  But he denied his conduct was “fraudulent.”

This case involved a 10 day trial, which featured the evidence of numerous witnesses.  One of the witnesses called by the school was  a “Mr. Zero,” who certainly has an interesting name for a witness in which one of the allegations is that certain students should have been given a mark of “0” for failing to hand in assignments.

In any event, after all of this extensive evidence, Justice Lemon concluded that Mr. Fernandes had been wrongfully dismissed.

The court made some interesting findings including:

  • Mr. Fernandes gave incorrect marks;
  • The marks he gave were late;
  • He allowed students to have overdue assignments;
  • Even though he was a computer teacher, his own computer program did not provide accurate marks;
  • He lied to his employers about how the marks were calculated;
  • He lied to the court about the student presentations were marked;
  • He admitted to falsifying some marks on students’ records.

These are all findings made by the court and appear in the decision.

However, the court also noted that Mr. Fernandes had been employed for more than 10 years and up to these incidents, was considered a “well-regarded teacher.”

Taking into account all of the circumstances and relying heavily on a charitable reading of McKinley v. B.C. Tel (2001) S.C.C. 38, [2001] 2 S.C.R. 161, the court concluded that “immediate termination was not the appropriate sanction for this misconduct.”  The court noted that “the defendants could have fashioned a reprimand and a warning that such conduct, if repeated, would lead to summary dismissal.”   The court awarded Mr. Fernandes one year’s compensation amounting to just over $50,000.

Mr. Fernandes had also sued for $300,000 in “intentional infliction of mental distress.”  This claim was rejected.

However, in addition, he had brought a claim for “long-term disability benefits” for $226,000.  At trial, he demonstrated that he was suffering from severe depression and other related symptoms.  The court held that he became disabled after being dismissed and during the applicable notice period.  The employer was therefore responsible for the full value of the disability benefits.  Given that Mr. Fernandes was 52 at the time of dismissal, this could mean approximately 13 years of LTD benefits, for which the defendant school would be responsible.

It remains to be seen what the Ontario Court of Appeal will do with this case.  Given the findings of the judge, there seems to be significant findings of improper conduct that may well warrant a just cause dismissal.  Although the judge was in the best position to make these findings of fact, the Court of Appeal may well review the court’s conclusion that just cause dismissal was not warranted in the circumstances.  It should provide for some interesting reading if the case is actually appealed and argued.

Irrespective of what ultimately happens with this case on appeal, if it gets there, here are some key points to consider:

1.  Establishing just cause for long service employees is extremely difficult and costly.  Many judges are willing to give plaintiffs the benefit of the doubt, even where serious misconduct is alleged.  Even were there is evidence of some misconduct, courts will consider the whole employment history of a dismissed plaintiff;

2.  Dismissed employees can and should fight employer determinations of “just cause” if there is any reasonable prospect of success and sometimes, these cases can sometimes even be won where the prospects look grim;

3.  Dismissed employees are entitled to insurance benefits during any applicable notice period.  If they are cut off from these benefits by their employer and then later found to have been wrongfully dismissed, employers will be responsible for the full value of the benefits.  This means that if an employee dies during a notice period, the employer will be responsible for the full value of the life insurance policy that had been in effect.  If the employee becomes disabled, the employer will be responsible for the full value of the disability benefits.  Employers need to consider liability very carefully before cutting of an employee from all benefits when making a termination decision.




CBC Decision to fire Jian Ghomeshi: More Details to Come?

Everyone is talking about the CBC decision to fire Jian Ghomeshi. Certainly, Canadians love a good sex scandal story as do readers across the world. In fact, I have already been contacted by several people in the U.S. and asked about the Canadian legal perspective in this type of case.  This story has legs.

But it is far too early to draw any definitive conclusions. I am not involved in this case in any way and have no first hand knowledge.  I am certainly in no position to assess whether or not Ghomeshi’s conduct was such that it actually substantiated the termination of his employment. But a few observations can be made to this point in time.

For one thing, unionized employees generally face quite an uphill battle in launching lawsuits. The Supreme Court of Canada has ruled, on a number of occasions, that unionized employees who are fired must use their grievance arbitration process. As a unionized employee, this means that Ghomeshi must proceed with a grievance arbitration with respect to the main  issue in his dispute – whether the CBC had just cause for terminating his employment.

Ghomeshi’s lawyers are obviously aware of this law. As a result, they have not sued for “wrongful dismissal.” Instead, they have framed the claim as one of “breach of confidence” and “defamation.” This is essentially a back-door effort to circumvent the existing case law and try to show that the essence of Ghomeshi’s case is not really wrongful dismissal.

Hard to imagine that much of the case will proceed successfully. In all likelihood, there will be a preliminary motion in which the CBC will seek to have most, if not all of the case thrown out. The basis for the motion will be the argument that this is really a lawsuit over the CBC decision to terminate Ghomeshi’s employment. The Statement of Claim itself alleges that the CBC fired Ghomeshi because it made a moral judgment about the appropriateness of Ghomeshi’s sexual conduct. For the most part, this type of allegation and dispute would be the type of issue that an arbitrator has the exclusive legal jurisdiction to adjudicate in a unionized context.

What about allegations of “breach of confidence?” In certain circumstances, dismissed employees can succeed with tort claims that are beyond the scope of the normal dismissal claim. But, for the most part, the court must find that the conduct is outside of the scope of the employment relationship.

Here the Statement of Claim alleges that Ghomeshi shared various details about his sexual practices, which it is alleged included consensual BDSM. The claim alleges that Ghomeshi shared this information with the CBC “voluntarily and in good faith” in the interest of working with the CBC to refute “false allegations.”

Does this duty of confidence normally exist? It might in certain limited circumstances. For the most part, when employees tell their employers about conduct in which they are involved, they are not normally immunizing themselves from their employer’s future assessment of the propriety of their conduct. To date, Canadian law has not normally recognized a principal of prophylactic, premature explanation as a means of inoculating oneself from future disciplinary action.

If the facts demonstrate that CBC either explicitly, or even implicitly, undertook to ensure confidentiality and agreed that it would not use Ghomeshi’s information for any other purpose, perhaps there might be an argument. But that does not even appear to be the allegation that is being made in the claim.

Overall, there may well be something to the suggestion that has been made by some commentators that the Statement of Claim is largely strategic, a further protective move aimed at discouraging any would-be complainants from coming forward under the threat of facing expensive litigation. But I did not read the Statement of Claim as one that was filled with defamatory statements made about other individuals. Nevertheless, given that the CBC is not likely to back away from the litigation any time soon, one can’t help but wonder about the real intended recipients of the claim and the real goals of the lawsuit.

As I mentioned, I am in no position to predict the final results or assess the various claims. But if at least part of the claim remains public (union arbitration hearings are not), salacious news stories will create lots of buzz. Canadians are bound to find the details of Ghomeshi’s alleged BDSM lifestyle titillating, particularly in the wake of the world wide success of 50 Shades of Grey.

The employment law question, assuming that Ghomeshi’s alleged conduct was in fact consensual, will be whether an employer can fire a high profile employee for legal personal behaviour to which it objects because of its concerns about its own profile and image. If the case is ever actually decided (rather than settled like most Canadian cases), the decision is likely to make for some fascinating and very entertaining reading.

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